White Papers


You will find a large number of White Papers here, regarding various topics including, but not limited to Process Safety & HAZOP, Hazardous Area Classification, Hazardous Area Instrumentation, Industrial Cyber Security, RFID Technology, Safe Chemical Warehousing, Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning, Functional Safety and SIL, Industrial Automation, Big Data and much more.

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Below there are several white papers classified under various categories such as RFID, Process Safety, Hazardous Areas and so on. Click on the Title of the Whitepaper to read the excerpt and then click the Read More link to go to the complete White Paper

How to Manage Hazardous Areas without increasing costs
Hazardous Areas are typically found in large facilities like oil and offshore oil & gas platforms, oil refineries, chemical processing plants, tank farms, supertankers, other ships that carry petrochemical cargo and even places like grain silos, which have the risk of explosion or fire due to explosive mixtures of vapors or dusts. Hazardous Areas are also referred to as "Classified Locations" in North America.... Read More
Intrinsic Safety- How it works

Intrinsic Safety is a concept that came out of the mining industry in the early 19th century. At that time, a lot of mining accidents used to happen, many of which were traced to sparks that were generated by electrical circuits, that were used in mine lighting, signalling equipment and the like. These mining accidents were explosions resulting from the ignition of a mine gas called Firedamp (now known to be mainly composed of Methane). Due to the nature of the area (underground mines without ventilation), the gas used to be trapped inside and explode on contact with sparks.These mining explosions also had larger number of fatalities than say an above ground explosion would because of the confined area and the spreading of the fires and debris through underground passages.....Read More

Managing Hazardous Areas using Gas Monitors

Hazardous areas are those locations that could have hazardous levels of explosive gas, vapor or dust mixtures present that could potentially ignite and cause fires or explosions. Such locations are normally found in oil & gas processing, chemical & petrochemical plants, shipping terminals, warehouses , aircraft fueling depots and similar locations. Electrical equipment that is to be installed in such locations is different from general purpose electrical equipment. It has to be explosion protected and certified for the area in which it is to be used.....Read More


What is HAZOP

HAZOP is  an acronym created by combining the words for HAZard and OPerability (Study). It is one of the most popular, non quantitative Risk Assessment methods in use today across a wide range of industrial operations, but not limited to, Oil & Gas, Refining, Chemicals, Petrochemicals, Glass, Pulp and Paper, Pharmaceuticals, Food and Beverage, Power Generation and so on. The only kinds of industries that do not use this method for Risk Assessment are industries that are into discrete parts manufacturing like Automobile manufacturing, machinery manufacturing, etc. It is even used in places like Mining, Steel Plants and Foundries. It is also used in Electrical Systems, called "Electrical HAZOP" but we will not be covering it in this White paper.... Read More

How to reduce Enterprise Risk via PSM

In popular literature available online, most enterprise risk is mainly implied as being either financial risk due to incompetent or malicious management, supply chain related risk or legal compliance risk. While these may hold true for financial institutions like banks, these are not the only things to look out for if you are running an oil company or a chemical manufacturing company. An important risk in these enterprises is the possibility of accidents that can damage assets, kill or injure people (not just within the perimeter of the facility but also outside) and even  cause lasting environmental damage. And no, the only way to hedge against these risks is not by just buying more insurance, but by having a pro-active Process Safety Management program. This one factor will cut down the risk drastically. So how do we do this? Read Here

CHAZOP- A Short Primer

CHAZOP is short for Computer (or Control) HAZOP. It is used to evaluate the impact of failures of the Control System Computers (in other words the DCS or PLC/SCADA or other Automation System) that is used for Process Control, by using the same techniques that are used to carry out a HAZOP on a plant unit. ...Read More


An Introduction to Functional Safety and SIL (Safety Integrity Level) 

This paper introduces the concepts of Functional Safety, Safety Integrity Level (SIL) and FSM (Functional Safety Management). Increasingly, Functional Safety is playing a key role in ensuring safety, preventing accidents as well as protection of people, assets and the environment. This white paper is intended to explain key concepts of Functional Safety to a technical audience, not necessarily having any experience in industrial safety........ Read More

Safety Instrumented Systems-Design Tips for Engineers

Modern chemical and hydrocarbon processing plants, oil & gas production facilities, power plants and other similar process plants all have some instrumentation and automation that ensures safety. These are known as Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS for short). These systems also are known by various other names such as Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESD for short), Safety Shutdown Systems, High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems (HIPPS) and so on. But all of them belong to the class of systems that are referred to as SIS....Read More

Integrated SIS DCS or Separate SIS and DCS-Which is better?

Modern industrial plants, oil & gas production facilities and other process plants all have some instrumentation and automation that ensures safety. These are known as Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS for short). These systems also are known by various other names such as Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESD for short), Safety Shutdown Systems, High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems (HIPPS) and so on. But all of them belong to the class of systems that are referred to as SIS...... Read More

HIPPS-High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems

By now if you have been working in the process industries (like chemicals, oil & gas, petrochemicals and so on) for some time, you must have come across the term HIPPS. What is it? It is an acronym for High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems. These protection systems can be considered to a special subset of Safety Instrumented Systems (learn more about them here), that are meant to provide protection to pressurized equipment (tanks, pipelines and so on) against overpressure and consequent rupture......Read More


Top 5 myths about Industrial Cyber Security busted

Control Systems (DCS/SCADA/PLC/SIS) are part of the critical infrastructure of any large industrial facility. Disruptions in these systems can therefore cause undesirable incidents that may not only affect the concerned industrial plant, but also impact people and the environment adversely. Hence cybersecurity of these systems should be the concern of all stakeholders associated with these systems. However, there are quite a few myths out there about Industrial Cybersecurity. This is an attempt to dispel some of those. ........ Read More

How to detect Stuxnet, Irongate and similar malware in Industrial Control Systems

Stuxnet is arguably the world’s best known piece of Industrial Control System malware that was apparently used to sabotage nuclear plant equipment at Iran’s Natanz facility. The malware did damage to a lot of critical equipment in that facility. It did not just stay inside Natanz however, it spread everywhere and within a couple of years was found on hundreds of other Siemens control systems in Asia, Europe and elsewhere. After it was somewhat accidentally discovered, researchers analyzed it, guessed its objectives and revealed their findings to the world. They also put the code online (presumably for other security researchers to analyze and take steps to harden other control systems). The entire episode put Industrial Cyber security back into focus. Several cybersecurity experts and others were warning for quite a long time, about Industrial malware, but nobody in positions of authority seriously believed that something like this could actually happen in the real world. In that respect, Stuxnet was a big wake up call to everybody in the Industrial Instrumentation, Control Systems, Automation Systems, Safety Instrumented Systems and Functional Safety fraternity............. Read More

What is ICS Security?

Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the subject of ICS Security. ICS stands for Industrial Control Systems. These systems are of various types such as DCS (Distributed Control Systems), SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems), PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers) and SIS (Safety Instrumented Systems). All of them are used to monitor and control processes in all kinds of industries and sectors such as oil & gas platforms, mines, oil refineries, steel plants, chemical plants, power generation plants, manufacturing plants, paper mills, electrical grids, water supply networks and many more areas. Many of these systems are legacy systems that decades old and vulnerable to cyber attacks from various entities. This paper provides a brief introduction to the subject. Click here


Using RFID Technology to improve the Pharma Supply Chain

Coming Soon!


Importance of Chemical Warehouse Safety
The business of a company depends upon the efficiency of manufacturing, supply chain and marketing and commercials. Supply chain efficiency depends on the effectiveness of logistics which includes warehouse operations. Warehouse operations can be effective provided warehouse design, layout, infrastructure, processes, staff and safety norms, transportation are appropriate to the requirements. For the chemical industry, warehousing is important because of the hazards of the materials being stored and handled....... Read More
Lessons from the Tianjin Warehouse Accident

Coming Soon!


Decomissioning Process Plants- A Structured approach

The current economic and socio-political environment has made product lifecycles of chemicals much shorter. Also cost pressures, regulatory pressures, influence of non-state actors and changing market geographies, mean that manufacturing plants (examples are chemical process plants, Oil & Gas facilities, hydrocarbon processing plants and similar) need to be shuffled around, shut down or shifted at a much higher frequency than in earlier years. This article is a primer on how company managements can handle this without getting overwhelmed by the complexities of these projects. This can happen because quite a few company managements may be very skilled and versatile when setting up new plants, but may be inexperienced while doing the reverse.......Read More


Big Data in the Process Industries

Big Data is a technology that is growing in importance in a wide variety of business sectors. It is about using special techniques on large amounts of data, to gain insights as well as actionable pieces of information. It’s importance can be gauged from the fact that it is considered as a second Industrial revolution, meaning that it will completely change how business is conducted, across a wide swathe of enterprises and markets. Until recently, Big data was mainly being used in Retail (both bricks and mortar as well as E-commerce), Online Advertising, Healthcare & Medical Insurance, Banking and Financial markets. However it is now being used also in the traditional industries such as Oil and Gas, for example in smart Reservoir Management for oilfields. In this White paper, we will examine how we can fruitfully use Big Data techniques in the downstream industries related to Oil and Gas as well. This includes industries such as Petrochemical & Chemical manufacturing, Pharmaceutical manufacturing, Power Generation and so on......... Read More


How the IoT can wreck the Internet itself

Unprecedented growth in devices that are connected to the internet, mainly due to the IoT phenomenon, is becoming the Achille's heel of the internet itself, as these things can be hacked into by malicious players and then used to launch attacks on the internet infrastructure, paralyzing critical online infrastructure such as banks, stock exchanges and public utilities. An urgent need exists to come up with globally mandated standards to improve IoT security to avoid these possible undesirable events.............. Read More

How the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Digitalization can revolutionize manufacturing plants?

The Internet of Things (IoT) for short has become a buzzword used extensively and it is also currently very high on the Gartner Hype Cycle. There is a lot of chatter in the media about smart health bands, or refrigerators that order online when they sense empty shelves. Although these are far from becoming reality due to several practical issues, do not dismiss IoT technology as also being just hype. It has the capability to completely revolutionize manufacturing as we know it today. Not just discrete parts manufacturing, but also large process industries can benefit tremendously from IIoT technology. This white paper shows how you can start using it in your industrial applications. Read More...


Toxic Gas Monitors- How do they work?

Industrial plants that manufacture chemicals, fertilizers, petroleum products, or, facilities that produce oil & gas, have to handle various toxic chemicals in their day to day operations. Many of these toxic chemicals are in the form of gases or vapors. This article will give a brief overview of the various kinds of toxic gas detectors used to detect these poisonous materials. The example used will be a detector used to detect Hydrogen Sulfide gas, which is extremely toxic. These detectors are also called simply in industry as H2S detectors.....Read More


E-learning in the Process Industries

Today's  process industries depend  heavily on employees who are trained in the right skills that they need to run the process plants and facilities. It is not for nothing that an ideal organization is also called The Learning Organization. With shortage of staff due to competitive pressures like downsizing and outsourcing, it is highly critical for any industry, to ensure that all of its employees are trained regularly. This is especially so, for businesses like the process industry (chemical processing, oil & gas production, refining, etc) who are heavily involved in engineering and technology, because of the rapid changes and advancements (and equally rapid obsolescence) in technology today. Training employees and other stakeholders in your industry, regularly, is a daunting task- if attempted to do with the traditional instructor led training.In this White Paper, we examine the issues involved and see how e-learning can offer a better solution......... Read More


An Introduction to AC Variable Frequency Drives

Coming Soon!


Confined Space Safety-5 things to look out for

Confined spaces are one of the top workplace hazards today. However, what constitutes a “confined space”,  is very vague, in the minds of workers as well as their managers. In the US, OSHA (US Occupational Safety and Health Administration) regularly publishes confined space fatality data and one can easily see that by far, this is one of the biggest workplace hazards today. This White paper provides three recent cases from different industries and a checklist that helps identify confined space hazards in your own workplace......Read More

Personal Protective Equipment- Reduce Employer liability and ensure compliance

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is the last safe-guard against workplace hazards which may be physical, chemical, biological or radiation hazards. The employer is obligated to comply with various statutory laws for this. Find out these details and how to comply via this white paper. Read More